Basic dietary rules: food balance

The daily balance
In a nutshell, to achieve food balance, you need to consume every day:
- 5 portions of fruit and vegetables, between about 400 and 600 g, no matter in what form (fresh, jam, cooked, fruit juice ...)
- 3 dairy products (cheese, milk, yogurt)
- 1 or 2 times fish, meat or eggs
- 1 or 2 "portions" (one tablespoon) of fats
- 3 servings of starchy foods and / or bread
An ideal meal therefore consists of a raw and / or cooked side dish, a source of protein (meat, fish, eggs), a portion of flour and / or bread, a dairy product, a fresh or cooked fruit.
To get your fill of vitamins and minerals, it's important to vary your foods and limit processed products, which are low in micronutrients but high in hidden fats and sugars.


In detail
Each food has its own nutritional composition. It is made up of energy-rich macronutrients (proteins, fats and sugars), micronutrients (vitamins and minerals), fiber and water. The set of foods consumed constitutes the diet.


Macronutrients

See also

Food pyramid: the importance of knowing it in order to eat well

22-day diet: scheme and menu of the food program that makes you lose fi

Lemme vegetarian diet: an example of a menu of the food philosophy of the momen

What are they for? What is the daily requirement? Where are?
The proteins
1 g = 3 Kcal They are the building blocks of organs and muscles, they govern their functioning and development
Requirement: 1 g per kilo of body weight per day (e.g. 60 g if you weigh 60 kg). That is about 15% of the energy intake
Meat, fish, eggs, dairy products (animal proteins), cereals, dried legumes (vegetable proteins)
Carbohydrates
1 g = 4 Kcal Provides the necessary fuel for muscles and organs (including the brain)
Requirement: About 55% of the energy intake, preferably in the form of starchy foods
Cereals, pulses, starchy products, dairy products (except cheese), fruit, sweets
Lipids
1 g = 3 Kcal They constitute the energy reserve of the cells and participate in the activity of the organs
Requirement:About 30% of the energy intake, preferably in the form of unsaturated fats
Butter, meat, fish, eggs, cured meats, dairy products, oil, margarine, and many compound foods


Micronutrients
- Vitamins

What are they for? What is the daily requirement? Where are?
B1 Sugar metabolism, functioning of the nervous and muscular systems; 1.1 mg; Wheat germ, meat, fish, legumes
B2 Metabolism of proteins, lipids, carbohydrates; 1.5 mg; dairy products
B5 Maintenance of mucous membranes, skin, hair; 5 mg; meat, fish, eggs
B6 Metabolism of amino acids and proteins; 3.5 mg; meat, fish, eggs
B8 Growth, metabolism of proteins, carbohydrates, lipids; 50 mg; liver, egg yolk
B9 Growth, nervous system, bone marrow, red blood cells; 300 ug; leafy vegetables
B12 Red blood cells, growth; 2.4 ug; animal products
C Tissue repair, immune system, anti-free radicals; 110 mg; fresh fruit and vegetables
PP Production of energy, growth, hormones; 11 mg; meat, fish, cereals
A Sight, Growth, Detox, Skin; 600 µg; dairy products, egg yolk, colored vegetables
D Calcification; 5 ug; fatty fish, egg yolk, liver
E Protection of the body against harmful substances; 12 µg; oil, margarine
K Blood clotting; 45 µg; spinach, cabbage, parsley

- The minerals

What are they for? What is the daily requirement? Where are?
Calcium Constitution of bones and teeth, growth. 900 mg. Dairy products, vegetables and nuts
Iron Constitution of red blood cells. 16 mg. Meat, eggs, legumes, chocolate
Fluorine Solidification of teeth and bones. 2 mg. Fish, seafood, vegetables and nuts
Iodine Thyroid functioning. 150 ug. Sea salt, fish, seafood
Potassium Distribution of water in the body. 50 mg. Fruits and vegetables
Sodium Distribution of water in the body. 1 to 1.5 g. salt
Magnesium Muscle contraction, mood regulation. 360 mg. Dried fruit, chocolate, mineral water, whole grains
Phosphorus Bone formation, nerve cell functioning. 750 mg. Dairy products, fish, meat ...


- The fibers
What are they? They are components of vegetables and cannot be digested. They are found in the wall of plant cells (cellulose, pectin) or within these (gum, mucilage ...).
What are they for? They slow down the emptying of the stomach after a meal, thus increasing the feeling of satiety. They slow down the absorption of carbohydrates in the stomach. They regulate intestinal transit and help fight constipation. They decrease harmful cholesterol and the risk of colon cancer.
What is our requirement? 25 to 30 g per day.
Where are? Vegetables, fruit, legumes, cereals (especially wholemeal ones).


The water
It is the main component of the body. It ensures the transport of nourishment and waste, and allows to stabilize the body temperature. Since it is disposed of every day with the elimination of urine, with perspiration, with breathing, with feces ..., it is essential that it be replaced by drinking (1.5 liters per day) and consuming foods that contain it.

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